Sportsman Gun Centre Blog

  • CIP, London & Birmingham Proof House’s Barrel Proof Symbols Equivalency Table for Use with Steel Shot Ammunition

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Use of Steel Ammunition

    Knowing what steel ammunition can and can’t be used with shotguns bearing both CIP proof marks and historic national proof marks, or “proof symbols”, can be very confusing.  The proof symbols are explained in their simplest possible terms for what ammunition may be used with the relevant proof symbol above.

    It must be understood there are two types of steel ammunition, Standard Steel & High Performance Steel.

     Standard Steel ammunition can be used with any shotgun (other than Damascus/twist barrelled guns) bearing any of the below CIP, London or Birmingham symbols, provided the ammunition is of the correct length for the chamber and the barrel choking is less than half choke (some small cosmetic choke damage may still be incurred, even under these conditions). The ammunition packaging should signify that the ammunition is Standard Steel. But, if you are at all unsure whether your ammunition is Standard Steel, please contact the manufacturer. You maybe unsure if your shotgun is suitable for Standard Steel in which case please contact a knowledgeable gun dealer, gunsmith or the British Proof Authority for advice, however this may involve the submission of your shotgun for inspection.

    High Performance Steel ammunition can only be used with shotguns bearing a CIP fleur de Lys Mark, as symbolised below in the table above. The ammunition should be the correct length for the chamber. The CIP recommends less or equal to half choke in relation to a given shot diameter for the Bore. Please see the table below for clarification.

     

    The ammunition packaging should signify that the ammunition is High Performance Steel. But, if you are at all unsure whether your ammunition is Standard Steel, please contact the manufacturer. You maybe unsure if your shotgun is suitable for Standard Steel in which case please contact a knowledgeable gun dealer, gunsmith or the British Proof Authority for advice, however this may involve the submission of your shotgun for inspection.

  • Primary Arms Optics SLx 1x MicroPrism Receives NTOA Recommendation

    Primary Arms Optics proudly announced that the SLx 1x MicroPrism has received a special recommendation for duty-use by the National Tactical Officers Association (NTOA).

    The NTOA testing focuses on real, practical performance, evaluating products by their value to Law Enforcement operations. These tests encompass weeks of field testing by a panel of Law Enforcement professionals, who score products according to at least 6 of 13 primary criteria, including Design, Performance, Ease of Use, Size, Quality, Durability, Storage, Versatility, Convenience, Application, Comfort, Accuracy, and Cleaning & Maintenance.

    To receive a basic recommendation, the product must average at least a 3 across all criteria, while special recommendations are given to products with an average score of 4+. The Primary Arms Optics SLx MicroPrism received a 4.38 overall average, qualifying it for special recommendation.

    In reviewing the optic, evaluators noted its versatility, agility, and optical clarity. One noted, “Overall, I was impressed with this scope. It is small compared to others on the market, however it still has a lot of the features that larger and more expensive scopes on the market have. It is well built, and it appears that it will hold up in harsh conditions….”

    These reviews reflected many of the features promoted by Primary Arms Optics’ SLx line, which built Primary Arms’ reputation for innovation, reliability, and value. All SLx optics undergo rigorous field-testing during development to best serve the user in any environment. As with all SLx optics, the SLx 1x MicroPrisms come with a comprehensive lifetime warranty and commitment to customer satisfaction.

    “We’re honored to have received another special recommendation from the NTOA,” says Donald Riley, Vice President and General Manager of Primary Arms Optics. “The SLx 1x MicroPrism is a truly groundbreaking new optic, and for officers in the line of duty, its close-quarters performance and exceptional reliability are certain to be appreciated.”

    For more information on the new SLx 1x MicroPrisms, click here.

    To see a full list of NTOA-approved optics from Primary Arms Optics, click here.

  • Safe Shooting at Night - The best equipment to use, how, where, and when to shoot.

    By Chris Parkin

    Safe shooting is the absolute unarguable must in our sport to maintain safety and the sport’s longevity. The use of night vision and thermal imaging equipment has opened night shooting up for many people, you need less kit and it’s a lot easier to shoot alone without an additional `lamp man` that many of us got used to having along for the ride. Pest control has become slightly simpler and more time efficient, yet that other pair of eyes is often sorely missed when it comes to two minds thinking along the same lines, with an immediate backup second opinion on a safety call is not to be dismissed. I still far prefer to shoot with a friend for this exact reason, four eyes are better than two for safety, as well as spotting quarry and confirming identification.

    Familiarisation with your land and environment is as crucial as ever and although it’s great having rangefinders integrated into sights and spotters to open the ease of quarry engagement at range, it’s not as simple as you think. Factors like latency of image transmission through the electronics from the quarry to your eyes comes into account, there is an inherent that split second delay as screens research and this can have significant effect when a shot is already stressed. That split second you reacted up 1/30th or1/50th of a second ago comes into play so think ahead when quarry is not confirmed stationary.

    Knowing your backgrounds! Well, you won’t see as much of the terrain and topography with thermal imagers, perhaps a little more with night vision and colour gradients are also far less obvious and reliable. Colour palettes on the equipment are great for highlighting hot spots and new quarry movement but don’t rely too heavily on the colouration from thermal to indicate real colour, it is purely a perception of relative temperature. Night vision will more easily segregate dark and light colours, even entry level equipment can show the black and white stripes of a badger quite clearly whereas with thermal, it is all equally hot and therefore of equally colour. I’d suggest staying with one colour palette for most of your time as your brain gets used to the new world’s eye view you have in the dark. Each to their own, but I tend to like white equals hot on a black background for 95% of the time, only occasionally changing with thermal imaging to offer a further perspective in the alien environment we are becoming accustomed to. This also seems to offer me less visual strain when transferring from thermal spotter to night vision scope, my personal preference when night shooting which I nearly always keep in black and white mode, rarely ever green on digital NV. Image intensifiers that use less transmitted and more ambient IR light are often a green hue.

    The strength of IR illuminators used to project light with night vision has a significant effect on image brightness and the range at which quarry can be identified, small inbuilt IR’s generally support airgun and rimfire ranges to 100 metres, depending on backgrounds and intervening reflection. Some Digital units like PARD 007 and 008 benefit strongly from strong IR add-ons and they balance it well with their inherent daylight capability whereas something like a Pulsar Digex has a more sensitive black and white night time sensor, just like human eyes have rods and cones to segregate dolour of black and white/poor light perception. The Digex can be overwhelmed by too strong illumination yet offers slightly superior night time sensitivity at the expense of colour daylight capability on the PARD. Colour does offer far simpler setup and zeroing. Of course, the more sensitive units that may require less additional light will also suffer less from less reflection projected from yourself on the axis which you are also viewing along. Most IR sights and illuminators offer beam divergence and strength adjustability for this very reason, most units can be somewhat balanced for best effect in average use, yet at extremes, more specific items will always show best performance.

    Night vision gives an alternate perspective to thermal and since both allow you more time to observe quarry before taking a shot, the ability to check and double check what you are looking at and aiming past, cannot be dismissed. High end thermal has great benefits in terms of the ability to differentiate the tiniest thermal differences on your quarry and background for far greater image quality, yet at significant additional expense. Even low-end night vision will pick up the reflection of barbed wire fences whereas entry level thermal will not, unless it has significant temperature variation, and this will change significantly between daylight and darkness with sun heating darker items rather than just ambient air temperature. The same can be said for trees, foliage, rocks and any other ground debris left lying around. This gives you a great opportunity to notice what you want to MISS, whereas thermal seems to prioritise only what you want to hit. If you have open ground, night vision is fantastic yet the more ground cover and concealment, the better thermal is but you still have to remember what might be there, at ambient temperature that you cannot see as clearly.

    Where quarry identification is almost 100% certain before you even leave the house, for example ratting in barns, use of thermal sights takes over from open ground and night vision in my opinion. Rats will hide under and be surrounded by other items of greater size that give problems with reflected IR light on night vision and here, thermal really does take the edge for me in situations where they scurry under containers for example. Night vision scopes will auto-dim to compensate for bright image exposure with strong light reflection, this protects your eyes! That comparatively dark brown/black rat will vanish in front of you when you get your own full beam reflecting back. Thermal sights like the PARD SA19 give awesome short range ratting potential, thermal identification is generally clear using lower magnification at close ranges with little pixilation on quarry that is unlikely to be among animals that mustn’t be shot. Any night vision or thermal using large amounts of digital zoom shows the image pixels far more abruptly so consider the base level magnification, which is more or less optical, rather than just digital maximums. Moving to the opposite end of the spectrum, thermal sights for longer ranges foxing will benefit from the bigger spend, more optical magnification, ;larger objective lens, more eye relief for bigger rifle calibres and greater thermal perception of quarry yet I have fitted Pulsar Thermions to air rifles for ratting and the image detail at 35 metres is unbelievably precise yet is it worth it just for rats, perhaps if your budget allows.

    Overall, after using a market wide range of equipment, thermal spotter and night vision rifle scope suit my foxing needs where shots are limited to around 200 metres with likely first identification range at 350-400 metres, but everyone’s land and range requirements can and do differ greatly. Watch your quarry walk, watch it move, know your land, and know the difference of reaction between species. Get used to thermal and night vision without a rifle before you are ever tempted to go straight into it with a chambered round. It’s impossible to go wrong with a thermal spotter but once a rifle gets involved, adrenalin can rapidly creep in for some shooters. The rules still apply about never pointing a gun at something you are not willing to kill.

    Photo Captions

    1. A thermal spotter is a great tool for daylight and darkness and can be used without safety risk
    2. Units like this Pulsar Accolade Binocular have improved image quality for identification but not necessarily primary detection and cost significantly more than a monocular
    3. An add-on like the PARD 007A is a great way to get used to night vision as both a monocular and/or night vision sight with your current scope
    4. A fully integrated unit like the PARD 008 combines all into one device yet still benefits from additional IR illumination to extend capability
    5. The ability to use Digital night vision like the PARD 008 in daylight, full colour as well as after dark black and white makes setup simpler and improves control familiarity
    6. Units like the Pulsar Digex require less additional IR intensity although can still benefit in some conditions
    7. Moving to a thermal scope is the biggest and generally most expensive step but look at the objective lens size and native non digital magnification to suit your needs
    8. Items like the Pulsar Thermion offer greatest thermal definition to aid shot placement and back up identification but the rule should still apply of not pointing a loaded rifle at something you are not willing to kill
  • What are the differences, ATA SP Black Men’s and Ladies’ shotguns?

    By Chris Parkin

    A few people have been interested to hear the direct comparison between men’s and Ladies/youth models of the SP Black Shotguns from ATA and after taking two otherwise identical 12g game guns to task, here are the definitive differences between the versions.

     

    Dimension Men’s Ladies/Youth model
    Calibre 12 gauge 12 gauge
    Barrel length 709mm/28” 709mm/28”
    Length of pull 370mm/14.6” 357mm/14”
    Drop at nose 36mm/1.4” 33mm/1.3”
    Drop at heel 55mm/2.2” 42mm/1.6”
    Overall Weight 3609gr/7.9lbs 3531gr/7.7lbs
    Barrel Weight 1407gr/50oz. 1413gr/50oz.
    Forend Weight 283gr/10oz. 308gr/11oz.
    Stock/Action Weight 1919gr/68oz. 1810gr/64oz.
    Balance point 10mm rear of hinge pin axis Hinge pin axis
    Trigger pulls/lower/upper barrel 1674/1816gr 1675/1669gr

    Items highlighted in Italics illustrate the differences are solely regarding stock geometry as all other metallic mechanical items come within manufacturing tolerances. Initially the main factor is the height and shape of the comb, the straight comb on the men’s version contrasts with the raised comb on the Ladies/youth version. Measurement to assess the difference here is called the drop at nose and heel, i.e., where your nose is closest to the front of the comb and your jaw at the rear. If you lay a straight edge along the top rib of the gun extending over the stock, the dimension below is the `drop`, at either point. Lesser dop essentially means an identical head/cheek shape would sit higher alerting eyesight alignment with the rib. Ladies or those of smaller build will generally have a less pronounced cheekbone, therefore needing a higher comb on the stock to align the eye just above the rib, whereas a heavier cheekbone needs a relatively lower comb. Of course, everyone is different so manufacturers can only offer average sizing, hence why guns can be custom fitted, tailored exactly to the specific shooter’s facial and bodily dimensions. The higher comb also features approximately half the taper from front to back, easing felt recoil through the face where the 19mm taper of the gent’s stock accommodates generalisations of neck length. The other major difference is length of pull, shorter arms and narrower shoulders need a shorter stock, although both guns are laterally cast identically, with the toe of the stock `bending` away from the chest more than the upper heel. The final difference is a combination of both longer length of pull (the actual stock length from trigger blade to the centre of the recoil pad), and varying mass of organic walnut. The longer stock weighs 109gr more which is a combination of the two and this leads to one of the most discreet handling factors, point of balance between your hands. The Ladies gun balances exactly on the central axis of the action/barrel hinge pin, whereas the longer heavier stock of the gent’s version moves this approximately 10 mm further rearward. The most subtle alterations are the slightly tighter grip radius, closing smaller hands with shorter fingers in forwards, towards the trigger by 5mm on the Ladies version. The grip is also 2mm slimmer in width at 35mm than the larger gun’s corresponding 37mm.

    Essentially, the two guns are identical other than the stock, but the shape and dimension of the Walnut can make all the difference to the shooter. Other factors like choosing a longer 30” barrel rather than 28” can offer significant handling changes and redress the balance point forward as preference dictates but in either format, the gun is a pleasure to shoot and offers basic generic adaptation to suit those of different stature.

    Photo Captions

    1. Men’s versus Ladies/Youth version is all down to stock geometry
    2. Both are supplied with identical multichokes
    3. The raised comb shape of the Ladies gun with less drop
    4. Straight comb on the gent’s version, more drop and taper
    5. Men’s and Ladies versions side by side
    6. Measuring drop at nose and heel below the sighting rib
    7. Identical action and selective safety catch
    8. Identical 7.7mm rib tapers from 7.9mm at the muzzle for subtle optical effect
    9. Both feature a red bead
    10. With identical barrel length, the men’s version shows a more rearward balance point
    11. Very subtle variation in grip shape and width for smaller hands on the Ladies version (furthest from camera)
  • Element Optics Nexus 5-20x50 FFP Riflescope

    By Chris Parkin

    First focal plane scopes aren’t new but it’s somewhat of a buzzword now as “FFP” has not only become the preferred optic to shoot across multiple distance formats, but that popularity has been adopted by scope manufacturers at all price points. First focal plane offers a huge factor of simplicity as use of the reticle to `measure` targets for rangefinding or holdover aimpoints, is thoroughly logical without any possibility of making a mistake using incorrect magnification setting, the drawback of the second focal plane optical system. Just to clarify, it’s quite easy to tell the difference as when you increase magnification on an FFP optic, the reticle, as well as the image gets bigger, both remain in perfect proportion. On a “2FP” scope, the reticle remains constant in size as the target gets larger so it no longer portrays a truly proportionate image. Neither is better than the other and there are many scenarios where 2FP holds advantages but critically, neither is at a loss in the others’ `territory`, just slightly less intuitive.

    Element’s top of the range Nexus scope adopts the common 5-25 magnification range seen across military and police optics that virtually set the trend and it is a great compromise because with reticle size altering, it’s important that it’s never too small or too large. This would possibly obscure too much of the image so the 5x zoom range has long been seen as optimum. A 50mm objective lens strikes a great daylight combination remaining compact with bright image quality at the head of the matt, hard anodised 30mm body tube. A neoprene cover is supplied along with 100mm sunshade, Allen keys, a clip-on lens cloth and additional throw lever for the zoom control.

    The central spherical saddle supports elevation above, windage to the right and left side parallax dial, engraved with white lettering from 10m to infinity which makes it suitable for any rifle type. The outer tip of the parallax dial offers control of the illuminated reticle, intensity settings from 1 to 10 illuminating the central crucifix area of the internal reticle. Both elevation and windage turrets offer 10mm@100m clicks or 0.1 mRad for adjustment of zero and multi range shooting. There are a very logical 100 clicks per turn, segregated into 10 mRad clocks on the 30mm diameter dial that shows neatly machined knurling for grip with fingertips or gloves. Once initially zeroed, the upper cap unscrews, allowing the engraved collar to lift off, realigned and slotted back down to mark zero setting for your preferred range. If you want to use the zero stop, when the collar is off, use the supplied Allen key to slacken the three circumferential recessed grub screw in the black collar and follow the detailed instruction book to set your zero stop. Any zero-stop prevents descent `below`, ensuring it’s impossible to get `lost` in the elevation range when constantly changing shooting distance. A vernier scale is engraved to indicate which turn you are within of the overall travel. Windage is similarly adjusted yet the collar is marked left and right of centre for logical dialled windage corrects. Remember, being FFP, all these corrections/clicks correspond precisely with the markings on the reticle within, so whether you aim off or dial off, the result is identical in terms of correction applied. I was using the mRad version of the scope but it’s also available in Minutes of Angle (M.O.A.) if you prefer. Maximum elevation range is 23.2 mRad (80 M.O.A.) with 14.5 mRad (50 M.O.A.) available for windage correction.

    With 55mm in front and 60mm or parallel tube space surrounding the scope saddle, there is plenty of real estate to mount scope rings and perfect your chosen position to suit the maximum 93mm eye relief, making this a versatile scope regardless of action size or gun type. Rearward is a well segmented zoom collar with smooth motion and no backlash, adjusted using similarly knurled throw lever supplied. This screws in place of the grub screw, removable with supplied Allen key. Mounting any kind of rear night vision add-on is no problem as the ocular body is parallel in profile at 42mm diameter with 37mm lens within surrounded by the rearmost fast focus eyepiece. This corrects the dioptre for your own eyesight, easily acquiring a crisp reticle image that is retained throughout the zoom range.

    The reticle on the mRad offering is well explained in the manual and strikes me as all I need, with nothing too `busy` in my field of view that obscures fall of shot or existing bullet holes. The small central floating dot is ideal for precision aiming when shooting small or circular targets yet the larger hash markings, applied in 0.5 mrad spacings with larger 2 mRad stages and broader arms at the extremes make for a great long-range aiming solution. I’m not too much of a fan of endless tiny supposedly `super precision` markings, that are realistically hard to see and don’t forget, as the reticle changes in size on an FFP scope, a balance has to be, and is here, well struck between disappearing on low magnification yet not obscuring too much image at full 25x. Element have specified size and complexity well here in my opinion. Being illuminated makes it easier to use in daylight at low mag in more point and shoot scenarios yet at full magnification when precision shooting, you can see a broad 19 mRad field of view for target acquisition and precision shooting at any distance.

    I fitted the scope to a few rifles throughout it’s time with me and found no real gaps in its capability. The eyebox remained easily accessible and the image bright, with clearly etched reticle always remaining in sharp focus, no need to alter the rear dioptre control after initial set up. Clicks were crisp and with 100 per turn, made mental arithmetic intuitive when shooting longer distances. Recoil on the centrefires was no problem, eye relief was sufficient to avoid contact with 308 sporting rifle recoil levels to control. Switched to an air rifle, the scope literally was in its “element” with reliable, repetitive dialling capability allowing confident engagement to ranges time after time from the DOPE chart I produced. Performance in poor light will always be a function of maximum magnification and objective lens size, so any 50mm objective scope is never going to be an ultimate last light hunting optic, but image degradation was linear, with no distinguishable steps in the diminishing image quality as light faded. Colour rendition was very good, and the sunshade was useful for decreasing sun angles as Autumn encroaches although you do have to remove it to use the supplied neoprene protector. These are great though as turrets not only get scratched in transit, and can also easily mark other guns, certainly timber stocks in your safe, no matter how careful you feel you are being.

    The magnification collar control had solid stops at either end of travel with no internal mechanical noise evident in the smooth transit along the internal helical lens package carriers. Element’s scopes seem to have been well directed into their price points yet without visible external compromise. It is good to see the slightly brighter image on the top of the range Nexus and quite specifically, improved colour resolution and precise detail definition, with backlash free focus and parallax control enabled with the left side parallax dial. It’s a scope I’m happy using and it continues in its place on the FX Crown air rifle that similarly suits my personal likes and preferences. For a less experienced user wanting more mechanical functionality from their optic, the instruction manual is clear, and not too small. It’s full of crisp colour images within and when it comes to turret setup, where lots of optics vary, it’s good to see Element not skim over explanation of detail to their consumers.

     

    Magnification Range 5-20x
    Tube Diameter 30mm
    Objective Lens Diameter 50mm
    Exit Pupil 8-2.5mm
    Eye Relief 77-93mm
    Field Of View @100yds: 23.3-5.8 Ft @100m: 7.8-1.9m
    Click Value 1/4 Moa (20 Moa / Rev) 1/10 Mrad (10 Mrad / Rev)
    Elevation Adjustment Range 80 Moa 23.2 Mrad
    Windage Adjustment Range 50 Moa 14.5 Mrad
    Minimum Parallax 10 Yds 10 Meters
    Length 13.8” 350mm
    Weight 28oz 794gr

     

    Photo Captions

    1. Element Optics Nexus 5-20x50 FFP Riflescope
    2. Element Optics Nexus 5-20x50 FFP Riflescope (9)
    3. Parallax goes all the way down to 10 metres making the scope usable on all rifle types
    4. Fast Focus eyepiece for clear reticle subtension
    5. Thro lever and zoom control
    6. Windage turret engraved left and right of centre zero point
    7. Stretch neoprene cover is supplied along with all Allen keys needed and a lens cloth
    8. 100mm sunshade was great in difficult light conditions
    9. Elevation cap removed showing zero-stop
    10. Excellent instruction book and reticle subtension diagrams are supplied
    11. Illumination on, low magnification
    12. Illumination off, high magnification
  • What moderators to choose & why they're needed for game shooting

    By Chris Parkin

    Over my shooting career, moderators have changed from an unusual addition to a rifle that surprised people, to an almost integral part of the rifle, scope and mounts package. The UK seemed to be one of the countries at the forefront of civilian use with several UK manufactured brands as well as Scandinavian stalwarts. Early moderators were heavy steel units, great at suppressing noise with intrinsic vibration damping too, but heavy and prone to life as a consumable product with corrosion a serious factor to consider. Being sealed units also made them pretty much impossible to clean other than shaking out as many of the rust particles as possible. Those that doused them with sprayed anti corrosion lubricants soon got used to an enormous gas cloud emitted on the following shot, along with a somewhat noxious smell. But personal comfort with less hearing damage was much appreciated, along with the additional benefit of fewer complaints over surprise noise when urban foxing in the middle of the night. When tackling groups of animals in multi shot scenarios, there was an immediate benefit to confusing the direction from which noise had come, if not that there was at least something untoward happening and this often made the immediate evasion direction less certain to them.

    The market is now far broader, moderators aren’t just appreciated, they are often mandatory in some locations and a variation for one is no problem, even for target use rather than just hunting. Benefits are primarily personal hearing protection, they don’t outweigh the need to consider other ear defence, especially if used on a range but for single shots you are now rarely bothered with short term tinnitus even though damage will still accumulate long term. The noise projected in the direction of the quarry is also more dispersed and although never silent, alters the balance between sonic crack and possible backstop impact noise whereby you might be more likely to get an opportunity with a follow up shot if needed. Carrying on from that, muzzle flash to a lesser or greater extent is certainly shielded more from view, away from the gun and from through your optic. The target is less likely to be obscured by flash allowing better appreciation of impact and at night, far less effect on night vision capability from your own eyes. When using NV equipment, particularly if filming, moderators will allow better view of impact position, terminal ballistic effects and with an additional illuminator, possibly even seeing the light source instantaneously reflected back from the bullet in flight. This further couples alongside recoil control. Sound moderators add weight to the rifle at the business end, both lessening muzzle flip and linear recoil pulse as some of the gas ejected like a jet is diverted and slowed, both being beneficial factors. Weight in itself has to be considered along with the overall length of the rifle in terms of portability but it’s generally seen now that the benefits of a sound moderator are well worth the additional rifle bulk.

    Moderators seem to fall into a general three-way balancing act of sound reduction, recoil control and longevity. Stainless steel with improved resistance to atmospheric and gas corrosion from the rifle’s discharge, are far more common now and with complex modular assembly rather than a purely welded structure, moderators can be both disassembled for cleaning and use materials with properties far more relevant to individual position in the mod. For example, the external tube of a moderator, the greatest element you can physically see, is satisfactorily made from 7000 series aluminium whereas inner baffles, especially the first blast baffle, are better made from stainless steel with higher chromium content to resist corrosion or nickel where gas cutting is fierce from the internal blast of hot propellant from the bore. My general findings are lighter aluminium `cans` will also heat up more quickly to dissipate heat, and cool more quickly with a large surface area exposed to the cooling atmosphere externally. Being low density, thicker aluminium can be used than Titanium, which is a very strong, medium density material allowing less to be used but it’s thin body dimensions, although light and strong, get hot very fast and if follow up shots are needed, will quickly exhibit mirage.

    Consider stainless steels for the external can, well they are denser and generally lead to a heavier moderator but suffer corrosion less than the non-stainless steels of old. These heavier moderators are very tough, durable and the mass itself absorbs the heat from the blast more slowly, often allowing a longer shot strings before it becomes a disturbance to the sight picture. The flip side is they can be slower to cool. Mirage bands and moderator shrouds can help with these matters but be aware of one overall fact…the barrel/moderator is a vibrating system, and you chose or tune your ammunition to work with its natural harmonic frequency. If you add mass, or change that barrel in any way, do not be surprised to see your point of impact change slightly on target and require a re-zeroing. If you use a fabric shroud, take care when removing and re-fitting to make sure any straps used are tight and not flapping around which may well affect harmonics randomly. Finally, just because a bullet hits slightly lower or higher on target at the fixed zeroing distance, don’t assume it’s slower or faster than before, it’s simply the change in harmonics, where in the circular oscillating cycle the bullet is when releasing the bullet from the crown. Yes, a moderator may also add a touch of weight that will make the barrel droop slightly, but this is microns, not centimetres, it only shows up because the target is hundreds of metres away.

    So, what would I chose, well for a stalking rifle, I like a light moderator, one that will silence a single shot and allow a backup with no problem, aluminium and titanium is ideal, but the latter can be disproportionately expensive! I use many brands but return regular to Wildcat for the modularity. For a target rifle or varminter where my shot count is higher, I err towards heavier stainless-steel units like ASE UTRA Northstar on my 223 Varminter and SL5 on 6.5mm/308 precision rifles like the Accuracy International AT. The SL7 fully extends beyond the, still compact, yet restrains 338 Lapua Magnum all day long on the range. The stainless steel offers excellent durability when portability is not a huge factor to consider. Sound suppression is also excellent and there is nothing to come lose. Modular moderators with compound construction are generally threaded together in a tubular format and slow cleaning but make sure you use suggested high temperature anti-seize lubricants on threads as firing residues under high pressure will find every little nook and cranny in a threaded structure, these can soon become locked up solid if not regularly attended. Benefits of such systems, like the Wildcat range are that you can have one moderator for several rifles even if they have differing threads, additional primary blast baffles with differing threads can be purchased and an assembly system is used that accommodates disassembly more easily. Just make sure any moderator is in itself tightened in all regions as well as to the barrel with well aligned thread, cleanly cut. Think back to the high-pressure gasses lodging minute particles anywhere they can get. Correct anti-seize lubricants used sparingly also help avoid galling and bi-metallic corrosion, a hot moderator tightened hard onto a hot barrel can become incredibly tight to remove when the system cools down. Do not force a thread that isn’t smoothly running, you are inviting damage and believe it or not, tolerances between manufacturers do vary even though many proclaim industry standards are maintained.

    ALWAYS remove the moderator after a shooting trip, they can and will form condensation inside. This is especially bad as most of use store a rifle in a cabinet, muzzle upward hence the moisture will descend down the barrel and form characteristically bad corrosion in the last few, most critical centimetres of the rifling. If you find that removal and refitting a moderator changes your zero, this is most likely down to a bedding issue (where the rifle action is held within the stock) which you likely, even non aggressively use to effectively hold the rifle (therefore use as a lever) when removing or re-fitting and tightening. If the rifle moves in the bedding/stock, this can be the problem, not the moderator itself and this is different to the harmonic changes from shooting with a moderator on or off which you have to account for in any zeroing setup should you chose to use a rifle in both states on a regular basis.

    No moderator will truly restrict all noise but with protection around 25-33dB available from different models, it is as appreciated for personal protection as much as ear defenders so with both, as I prefer professionally, you are doing all you can to avoid problems long term. Bore size has some effect on this in terms of using the nearest bore size available for your cartridge but the physical volume of the moderator can’t be beaten, as a general rule of thumb the higher the moderator volume and the more in front of the crown, rather than “reflexed” behind it, the more moderation you get. The volume is there to restrain and temporarily retain that fast hot booming gas expansion the internal baffles strip from the column of hot propellant following the bullet. After all this, we must mention the 22 rimfire for whom a lot of these rules hardly apply. With subsonic ammunition creating no supersonic `crack` in flight, much lower gas volumes, speed and heat created, I leave those in place on the rifles I use them on. These have been far more commonly seen for much longer than with centrefires and are one of the gems of the shooting world where it really, nearly almost becomes a true `silencer`. Similarity with Air rifles, modern precharged pneumatics with efficient regulated gas flow are incredibly quiet with little mechanical noise and yet still benefit from sound moderators to confuse direction and minimise disturbance in the close quarters scenarios they are used in. I have been getting great results with SAK on 22 rimfire for years and recently appreciated the Donny FL on both FAC and 12 ft-lb air rifles where the effects are personally experienced and able to detect even the slightest reduction in volume/dB.

     

     

    Images:

    1. Wildcat showing different materials appropriate to location within the gas flow
    2. FX Impact Mk3 with Donny FL moderator
    3. Steyr CLII SX Mountain in 223 with Wildcat moderator
    4. CZ 457 Carbon appreciates the sound of cilence using an SAK moderator with subsonic ammunition
    5. CZ 557 Eclipse in 308 Winchester being tested with moderator fitted, dont assume changed impact point when re-zeroing is from velocity change
    6. Wildcat Predator 12 on my own 260 Rem rifle, incredibly quiet but heavier and longer
  • Rifle Safety – How I treat my rifles and shooting in general

    Rifle Safety – How I treat my rifles and shooting in general

    By Chris Parkin

    You are only ever as safe as your next shot and gun safety has to be both ingrained within your psyche as a shooter, yet never taken for granted that `autopilot` will cover you in all circumstances. I tend to follow the same rules and procedures throughout my work which although perhaps different to yours, seems logical to me as an assessment of guidelines from governing bodies and shooing associations as well as what seems to occur to me. Never be afraid to double check anything, there is always another day to try again.

    To break it down reasonably simply, I always treat any gun, regardless of whether I have handled it or not as loaded until proven so or not. Even when proven to be clear, I was taught never point one at anyone or anything I’m not willing kill, muzzle awareness is vital at ALL times. Be absolutely sure of your quarry species and targets BEFORE you point the rifle, you cannot call the bullet back. Hunting in poor light or total darkness requires additional considerations from night vision or thermal imaging tools for safety and identification. Knowing range to target is an important safety and moral obligation for a safe shot and clean kill when hunting.

    Before loading any rifle, it should be checked to be in safe condition with an unobstructed bore, if unsure, clean it, it takes just moments and removing the bolt to visually inspect for any obstruction before a shooting session should become second nature. Loading and unloading should always be done pointing in a safe direction, it is a time when accidents are possible and be sure to familiarise yourself with all the control of your rifle. It’s not uncommon for additional force to be exerted using other controls as levers and this is to be avoided at all times.  If anything unusual happens when shooting, odd noises or no appearance of bullet on target, check the bore again to make sure any kind of dry fire has not dangerously lodged a bullet in the bore that on the following shot, could cause the barrel or action to burst. Are old guns still in proof? This may need a specialist to check or use of the Proof house themselves if necessary. Ammunition to be used should be in good condition and in the correct chambering for that firearm. Home loaded ammunition can perform exceptionally well but do not share it with others and make sure safe procedures are followed for its assembly, it is often unique to it’s own rifle’s dimensions and tolerances. Factory ammunition is made to uniform specifications safe for any firearms with the relevant proof markings, according to international specifications.

    If at any time the trigger is squeezed and all you hear is a click, treat this as a slow fire and maintain the rifle’s safe point of aim until you have counted to 30 in your head. Upon which time, with the gun still pointed safely, look away from the firearm to protect your eyesight and lift the bolt or open the action in such a way that should the bolt or handle blow back, your hands and fingers are not in its way. Burst primers can blow hot gas from the rear of any bolt which is designed to gradually vent pressure in the case of a burst cartridge, similarly from the side of the action in an escape hole on some designs.

    Never fire any gun without knowing where all projectiles it will discharge are going to end up, be sure of legal requirements over your land and proximity with public rights of way. The safe backstop is mandatory as bullets will fly many thousands of metres if negligently discharged depending on the angle at which the muzzle is pointing in the air. Only ever load the rifle when it is pointed in a safe direction and be sure to use all safety catches, but never rely on them as a perfect method of ensuring no accident can happen. Never assume a rifle is correctly zeroed and do not disengage the safety catch or place your finger inside the trigger guard or on the blade until the rifle is pointed at what you intend to shoot and if you miss, miss safely. Consider what the bullet may encounter on its flightpath to the target, especially when the line of an optical sight is higher than the bore itself. Even if the shot is perfect, consider what remnants of the bullet or pellet may pass through the quarry. The quarry itself is not `the backstop` and must never be treated as so, with animals in herds, it’s not unknown for fragments or whole bullets to hit additional animals not even directly behind them. Consider the backstop and whether it will absorb the bullet entirely or potentially allow it to ricochet off a hard angled surface and skim off elsewhere whining!

    Ensure that you or anyone in close proximity to any firearm is wearing appropriate hearing protection which should be considered mandatory, eye protection is also advisable if slightly more scenario dependant. Hearing damage is a fact, happening cumulatively with every shot or noise above 85dB and although quieter guns may seem less aggressive, it all adds up especially with high volumes of low intensity noise not considered uncomfortable, yet still aggressive. When carrying firearms, be sure of footings and balance and if you have to cross obstacles or climb walls, fences or tree stands, I always unload the rifle as anything dropped can potentially fall in any direction and if it does go off, you have no idea where the bullets may go. It is also not unknown for items like tree stands to be deliberately sabotaged to injure likely users so be fully familiar with the laws that surround your shooting activities, quarry, and locations. Consider noise and disturbance to surroundings along with the general public perception of shooting, you may be well aware of people well outside safety areas. People can react badly to being surprised by gunfire and hunters who are generally operating discreetly in pursuit of quarry, well within the law we understand but they may not. Lastly, I’m pained to suggest it, but firearms do not mix with drink or drugs. Be aware of any side effects of prescription medication and finally, be aware or diminishing capability as you become tired during or after a long day hunting.

    Shooting in all its forms is one of the safest sports possible, let’s all keep it that way.

  • FX EZ-Shot Chair: Review

    FX EZ-Shot Shooting Chair

    By Chris Parkin

     

    All shooting accessories can be somewhat situationally dependant and fit quite unique scenarios and the FX EZ-Shot chair certainly brings comfort in some of the more sedentary situations.

     

    The EZ-Shot is a two-part light folding tubular assembly you can carry into location with a padded shoulder strap. The steel frame folds open with thick foam padded cushions on seat and back rest to remain in position, close to the ground allowing long waits over known quarry hot spots or bait stations, especially when controlling vermin. The junction from back to seat can be adjusted at the hinge to suit your preferred angle, pretty much like that of a car seat. As well as comfort, the EZ-Shot also offers a versatile rest for the other critical component, your rifle. The `Y` shaped yoke features firm rubber fins for grip of the forend or precharged air bottle’s underside, with a pistol grip below whose trigger allows for fast and silent vertical height adjustment. Overall angle and height is set with a toggle lever between your knees at primary setup, becoming a single foot at the front. Combining this with the broader under seat base at the rear, effectively offers the intrinsic stability of a tripod so once in position, never wobbles or rattles as you necessarily must shuffle slightly adapting to the shooting angles offered by quarry.

     

    I used the chair for Squirrel control aiming high up, and ground level Ratting, nestled low in the crook of some bales and the EZ-Shot certainly gave me a comfortable vantage point with extremely low profile and silhouette to the ground. Although I removed a screening net for photos, you can see how at less than 9.7 lbs/4.4 kg, the addition of a lightweight net will totally screen you from view. With the front rest incorporated with the EZ-Shot, you can actually `travel light`, without undue additional supporting kit. It’s also important to state the additional insulation from the ground, not so bad in the Autumn but critical for additional comfort in winter night forays.

     

    There may well be many scenarios where you can build an improvised seating location behind a hide from items scattered around the average farmyard, but sometimes it’s great to be a bit more dynamic and move without additional work and noise during assembly and as you shuffle seated in situ waiting. The triangulated layout delivers a stable shooting platform if shooting using your knees as a rest, yet if squirrel feeders are higher into the trees, the silent manoeuvrability of the Aluminium yoke is incredibly helpful, just as much as it can be for low down shots, the mechanical adjustment range will span more than your own comfort. Overall size when folded for transport is 28.5” x 13.5” x 7” (724mm x 350mm x 180mm) and rated for a max load of 250lbs (18 stone)/114kg. I was a little doubtful at first of carrying the chair but when I find myself sat in greater comfort and not in damp farmyard ground debris, with an incorporated rest for accurate shooting at most angles, I was converted and now savour new opportunities using the FX Setup.

    Price
    £190

     

    Contact
    Sportsman Gun Centre
    www.sportsmanguncentre.co.uk
    01392 354854
    info@sportsmanguncentre.com

     

    Photo Captions:
    1. FX EZ Shot chair in use for squirrels high above the ground, the rest is a superb factor (camo net removed for photo)
    2. Silent rotation and elevation control from the yoke’s trigger is immediately appreciated
    3. Three main contact points can be used to intrinsically isolate any instability
    4. Broad webbing strap is great for carriage on an already lightweight unit

  • PARD NV007A Night Vision 16mm 4x Rear Add On - REVIEW

    By Chris Parkin

    I had always wondered if the concept of a rear add on night vision device might be step too far for someone strongly attuned to shooter ergonomics, so the PARD was a bit of a walk into the unknown for me. Opening the box shows the compact unit itself along with one of three possible scope mounting collars (42/45/48mm) that wrap the ocular body of the scope to seat the unit. A roll of black electrical tape is included to very gradually build up and protect the scope’s aluminium surface beneath the collar’s Allen screw clamp and although this may seem a little basic, works incredibly well, allowing you to achieve smooth, almost interference fit with true concentric axial alignment and little mechanical force applied. This is important for continuation of the circular field of view with reticle central in the rectangular screen of the PARD with minimal vignettes, the dark Halo that can restrict field of view.

    The 007 clips into these collars using a bayonet arrangement with a sprung left side latch for 100% rattle free security, it’s a second’s job to remove and re-fit. It can be mounted either way up so that the small external clamping screws can be placed left or right side to offer least interference form the bolt handle on what is an otherwise truly ambidextrous unit. Being rear mounted, there is no requirement for any zeroing as the PARD is itself looking at the scope’s exit pupil in exactly the same way your eye would have been. The other contents of the box are small Allen keys, replacement O-rings and a USB charge lead allowing the flat top 18650 Lithium-Ion battery to be charged on board with no need for additional kit. This is handy as the bayonet allows the unit to be taken off and put on charge without compromising putting your gun straight into the cabinet. There is also a soft case for storage off-gun. The battery fits under screw cap at the front and has insulating tape over contacts for shipping, just peel it off and you are live once fully charged. There are red/green LED indicators that offer charge state and in use, the internal display screens’ battery monitor has so far been very accurate with promised 8-hour performance when not using the 5W illuminator. I just turn it on and leave it on, but I suppose if you hunt daylight and darkness in ONE trip out, spare 18650’s are not expensive and swap in seconds, not minutes like multiple AA’s. Physical machining of the aluminium body shows no sharp corners, deep anodising and tactile serrations or knurling where grip is needed. The threads for the battery compartment are clean without swarf and the product has an air of `how is this done for this price`? Rubber elements are neatly moulded and offer protection where needed, especially buffering around the eye, sealing out external light sources and have remained glued in position without any likely fractures or degradation across a variety of weather conditions too.

    The supplied manual is reasonably comprehensive and simple to navigate without any particular `holes` in explanation. A short press of the upper rear button runs the unit on, first step is to use the rearmost aluminium collar to focus the screen for your eyes and this generally only needs doing once. After installation on the scope, the larger bi-laterally accessible collar underneath focusses the PARD to your scope’s exit pupil and reticle, just the same as your eye would. The unit works in daylight as well as darkness with full functionality either way. The 007’s are available in 1x or 4x base magnification. I had the 16mm/4x and this needs to suit your scope’s own mag level. Mounted to a Nightforce SHV set at its own minimum magnification, I preferred to keep the scope always at its lowest for max field of view and used the digital mag available on the PARD with 1-1.5-2-2.5-3-3.5x stages (4-14x overall) for more zoom. I’d like to try the 12mm/1x for comparison because I’m a low mag fan in general, but we all have our own preferences. I think on a 3-9x50 or 4-12 scope this would be ideal but regardless, on the 5x NF, I was still offered fully focussed images down to about 30 metres with only smaller field of view being the slight limitation when first finding and aligning quarry or tracking their movement at close range.

    The integral IR illuminator on the front of the unit runs from the internal battery so runtime will be affected after dark if in use. PARD assure 200 metre capability and yes, depending on atmospheric conditions and ambient light, you can pick up some detail that far after dark but for small game hunting, I’d be more realistic with 100 metres in the real world when considering accurate aiming solutions. I used an additional large illuminator as Is my general habit and had it been necessary, was able to retain stable sight picture easily at 300 metres on rabbits and Hares, with foxes comparatively far easier when chest shooting out to 200 metres. On-Board IR has a telescoping lens focus and for Air rifle ratting or 22 rimfire on Rabbits, absolutely perfect with included 850 nm IR, where too much illumination strength gives excessive return reflection, auto dimming night vision sensitivity on most units.

    The left side rubber cap conceals space for a micro-Sd card to record video and still footage in HD resolution with sockets for 3.5mm lead and USB connectivity. This can remain in place for weather protection and the unit also records sound. The menu structure on-screen is clearly laid out with language options and used fully descriptive names, not abbreviations. Key controls in order are default colour (i.e., will the unit turn on automatically in day or night mode), a similar function for IR too. Internal screen brightness, auto recording, loop recording (controlled in 3-5-10 minute videos), date stamp (very handy on footage to record exactly `when` something happened if necessary), Audio record on/off, Wi-Fi control, image exposure, date time, language and card format as well as firmware version. This last factor is interesting as I haven’t had to continually chase updates to make features work, the PARD arrived fully functional from its box and has remained so with no internal functionality half developed and needing updates as time goes by to actually work.  “PPSHOW” or “RoadCam” apps allow real time image display on Android or iOS devices with reliable Wi-Fi connectivity regardless of background network signal interference.

    Once learned, the button structure is easy to control, close by and accessible in the dark with good tactile perception of which button your fingertip is in contact with and if you actually pressed it. This is quiet when used although does sound louder on recorded footage during playback if scrolling through digital magnification for example. Long and short presses control deeper menu access of rapid feature on/off, like Wi-Fi for example. Flipping to night mode from day mode takes a three second hold on the left most rear button. Once in night mode, short presses of the same button control 4 stages (0-1-2-3) of IR intensity from the inbuilt illuminator. Short presses on the upper power button will turn the screen off to save battery and a longer three second hold shuts it down completely. It’s good to note if you do turn off completely, initial start-up is itself only three seconds for rushed opportunities. I personally love the fact you can enter and alter menus without visual confusion, on or off the rifle, or accidentally altering critical zero settings like you can so easily do on full night vision sights, rather than this add on unit.

    So, what’s it really like in use, well, ever the sceptic I am, I give the objective pointers. Firstly, I was concerned that the physical size of the unit that had to fit between head and scope would require too much ergonomic compromise but, in the end, although you do need to `wind your neck in` a little, it’s very usable and just requires literally that. Physical eye relief of about 25-30mm is ok for rifles up to about 243 in terms of recoil and for seated or standing shots, you will easily get used to it. It’s a bit too much of a squeeze for prone shots which naturally stretch your neck/head towards the optic but generally, I think this is less likely of a factor when night shooting from a vehicle, sticks or improvised rest anyway. Secondly, the required task of balancing focal lengths and optical performance is far easier than expected. Once set up, you can pretty much forget it and clip the solid bayonet catch on or off as often as required with no loss of focus or zero. Th unit can also be used off the rifle as a daylight spotter or in the dark as a secondary role which just requires re-focussing of what becomes a light 250gr handheld unit. The ocular collars are neat and compact with no effects for normal day scope usage, and you of course retain all mechanical turret/reticle adjustments for long range capability of said day scope if that’s required. Dare I also say, with the PARD on the back, you don’t lose any of that in darkness either if required, all your scope’s tactile mechanical adjustments are still that, you aren’t messing about twiddling menu trees every time you change ammo, need to tweak zero or for a longer-range shot.

    Footage on the internal OLED screen is 1024x768 resolution at 30 frames per second so you don’t really experience lag problems and get a smooth image flow like your eyes have got used to for decades watching films and tv until the latest era of HD and 4K. Visual identification is clear with great resolution and definition of couleurs on the animals, factors like rich browns and blacks being completely contrasting on a Hare’s ears in pitch darkness for example. Recorded footage is slightly higher resolution of 1920x1080 and looks great edited and made for video. Photo resolution is higher still at 2592x1944, but I generally capture screenshots from video footage because I can just leave the video running without attention diverted to pressing a shutter button in the heat of the moment. Having a scope with a large 50 or 56mm objective lens is also focussing significantly more light than smaller (sometimes sub 30mm) Night vision units on that key internal sensor, even if there is a compromise of more glass lens elements to pass through.

    The internal viewscreen demonstrates reasonably flat focus across its field of view and not too critical to eye positioning, this is probably helped by the fact your head is a little more firmly pressed onto the rubber eyecup maintaining stationary position. The PARD is also a great example of where digital night vision excels, the drift through dusk to darkness. You can detect normal daylight colour image starting to get a little grainier as the ISO sensitivity of the PARD increases as daylight diminishes, just like a regular Digital camera, but this gets you far beyond where daylight optics will function. That switch into night, black/white mode then continues through the dark helped by additional IR for as long as needed. In fairness, if you wear glasses you are quite restricted on physical space but in some cases (my own), I can compensate for dioptre using the PARD’s own screen focus and shoot without glasses or contacts but that is a very individual factor. My right eye is -1.75 dioptre to give you an idea of compensation level I’m adjusting for.

    The big factors remaining are the use of parallax adjustable scopes which is pretty much mandatory. Adjustable objectives will work but it’s a long reach so side parallax makes sense and is quicker in use than most focus critical standalone night vision scopes anyway. For the 100mm sacrifice in open space between the scope and your eye, the compromise is well worth is as I find image performance not only equal to, or superior to night vision scopes of similar generations, but far cheaper as well, almost half price in fact! Couple that to the fact you still have full daylight functionality for long range, zeroing and targets with your regular scope, accurate click values (not pixel related approximations), and secondary darkness functionality and/or daylight video capability from you the PARD on your Day scope, I find myself quite converted by this exceptionally appealing unit which can be used across a whole fleet of guns with no re-zeroing required, just add a few extra scope collars. I think I will be doing just that!

    Price
    PARD NV007A £332.99
    Additional collars £19.99

     

  • Thermal or Digital Night vision - The big question - is the additional spend worth it

    This is a question I’m often asked and like most things in life, very situationally and budget dependant. Looking at likely quarry species in range of size with the hope associated environments will help illustrate points. If you are ratting with an airgun, night vision can open a whole world of shooting possibilities when minimal levels of ambient light from the moon or general farmyard illuminators should give you satisfactory sight picture to take on these numerous rodents. But, beware using strong additional IR illumination from the gun/scope itself as reflections from intervening items or foliage can make the image auto-dim and leave you a little `blind`. Any Quarry in grass and other ground cover can be invisible to the naked eye or even night vision, but with a thermal scope, and not one needing to be particularly expensive, will stand out clearly to make an assured shot. Small quarry is also relatively easy to identify at close ranges and shooting through grass or straw is unlikely to be a problem when quarry is totally hidden, but their body heat always gives them away, under a steel container for example.

    Budget is key and when you take a step up beyond similar rabbiting needs to foxing, the protection of livestock and gamebirds is simpler to quantify and justify a larger spend. Given ranges up to perhaps 300 metres, precision shot making is key, but identification is the most important safety factor. After detection of the quarry, easily enabled at extreme ranges with a thermal spotter, the sight can itself be an EMERGENCY STOP tool, having given a different perspective on identification than thermal alone. Night vision, with good IR illumination will show strong details a Thermal will not and although that latter capability is catching rapidly, the ability to see quarry using a second image style can be a great benefit. Night vision is usually much less expensive than thermal, and I personally use a thermal spotter with night vision scope for this very reason, the dual perspectives in a dark environment. The caveat to this is the ground you shoot over, long grass can easily hide quarry which `pops` straight out with thermal and allows you to call it, track its movement and assess its patterns for identification without alerting it in any way.

    “Thermal shows you what you want to shoot, night vision shows you what you want to miss” has often been a helpful mantra to me. That IR reflection will often show you a wire fence that would have made your bullet ricochet or heavier cover you cannot simply shoot through. It’s easy to get carried away by a bright white thermal heat source and forget the surrounding details! Neither technology is an outright winner, I see them as complimentary tools rather than competitors. If money were unlimited, high-end thermal for both is an easy option because the latest units have great features and detail recognition but on realistic budget (just like the same rifle/scope budget we have so long worked on), I think maximum capability is available from a thermal spotter combined with night vision scope. The spotter is in use far more often and is the primary stage in identification before you ever even get close to pointing a rifle at your quarry.

    By Chris Parkin

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